• 26 February 2021

    CE in rural areas

    By Jim MacNeil, Tondo Associate English Version Exploring circular economy in rural areas The use of real-world laboratories to experiment with alternative design, business models and economies While cities present unique challenges in transitioning to the circular economy, rural regions also face their own set of challenges in doing so. Mountains have always provided vital natural resources, social and economic services to communities. Mountain regions are primarily known for their tourism and concentrations of tertiary sector economies, which represent the main sources of income for many rural communities and has become the quick solution to increase the GDP of depopulating communities, a common trend of many mountain regions over the last half-century. In order to have resilient economies able to withstand unexpected and devastating events, firstly, there should be a certain degree of diversity where a system is not so reliant on one industry, and secondly, the system should be flexible in order to adapt to new modes of operating and respond adequately to these events. Circular systems, like natural systems, are intended to be collaborative. Therefore, as a society we also need a change in mindset away from the competitive nature of capitalist economies. In order to do this, businesses and communities should demonstrate the benefits of adapting a new collaborative approach. MonViso Institute (MVI) is an example of how rural actors are taking advantage of their geographical location not only as a centre of experimentation – providing students and visitors inspiration and tools for change, but also in their ability to be self-sufficient, which rural areas have as an advantage over their urban counterparts. MonViso Institute – Demonstrating Circular Solutions Nestled in the Po Valley at 1500 metres a.s.l. in the municipality of Ostana (Piedmont), Tobias Luthe and his group of researchers, designers and entrepreneurs are experimenting with...
  • 16 February 2021

    Tondo Lab

    Versione Italiano Il clima sta cambiando e tali cambiamenti stanno avendo forti impatti su biodiversità, ecosistemi, nonché sulla salute e sul benessere umano. Limitare l’aumento della temperatura globale ad 1.5°C è un obiettivo che deve essere raggiunto per contenere i possibili disastri ambientali, quali forti precipitazioni, prolungati periodi di siccità o i rischi associati allo stress idrico. Il report del 2018 del Panel Intergovernativo sul Cambiamento Climatico (IPCC) dimostra che l’aumento della temperatura globale di 2°C al di sopra dei livelli preindustriali porterebbe a conseguenze devastanti. Per contenere i rischi legati all’aumento delle temperature è richiesto uno sforzo collettivo che acceleri le azioni di contrasto del cambiamento climatico. E’ infatti necessario integrare in maniera consistente il percorso verso un’economia circolare, passo fondamentale verso il raggiungimento degli obiettivi climatici. L’economia circolare offre una risposta sistemica alla crisi climatica riducendo le emissioni e aumentando la resilienza. I vantaggi derivanti da questo cambio di paradigma, inoltre, comprendono il raggiungimento di altri obiettivi come la creazione di città più vivibili, la re-distribuzione della ricchezza e lo stimolo all’innovazione.  All’interno del Green Deal europeo è stato infatti realizzato anche un piano d’azione per l’Economia Circolare. Il piano presenta nuove iniziative lungo tutto il ciclo di vita dei prodotti al fine di modernizzare e trasformare la nostra economia nel rispetto dell’ambiente. Affrontare quindi la sfida del passaggio verso una società ad impatto ambientale zero sarà cruciale nei prossimi anni di ricostruzione dell’economia post-Covid: ci sarà una crescente attenzione alla valutazione della circolarità delle aziende e alle aziende sarà chiesto di trovare modi innovativi per contribuire attivamente all’implementazione dell’economia circolare. Partendo da queste constatazioni, il team di Tondo ha deciso di creare Tondo lab, con l’obiettivo di accelerare la trasformazione delle aziende in un’ottica circolare. Tondo lab semplifica i percorsi di queste verso l’economia circolare affinando la...
  • 12 February 2021

    CE and Lithium-ion Batteries

    English Version By Alessandro Innocenti, Tondo Associate and PhD student at Helmholtz Institute Ulm A Circular Future for Energy Storage The lithium-ion battery is the key technology that is allowing the widespread adoption of electric vehicles,portable electronic devices, and renewable energy storage.Every year, an increasing number of batteries are put into the market: we passed from an installed capacity of 200 GWh of 2014 to more than 700 GWh in 2019, with a forecast of about 8000 GWh by 2030. This also means that more and more batteries will have to be retired every year after their use in one of the mentioned applications. In fact, lithium-ion batteries must be replaced after a certain time, since they show a decrease of the performances caused by inevitable chemical degradation reactions. Spent batteries can be directly sent to recycling for the material recovery, but the economic sustainability of lithium-ion battery recycling strongly depends on the presence of precious metals as cobalt (which is getting phased out for its toxicity) and nickel inside. This is the preferred route for the batteries used in consumer electronics and personal mobility systems, which are usually quite small and with a lower quality if compared to other possible applications. In fact, stricter requirements for batteries are present in the electric vehicle industry, because of the high standards in terms of autonomy and of power set by the manufacturers to be competitive with classic vehicles. Moreover, these standards must be assured for a long time, since no one wants that after one year or two from the purchase, the electric car makes 10-20% less kilometres with each “refill”. In the industry, the common threshold for the end of life of a lithium-ion battery is when it retains 80% of the initial capacity or power. The actual time needed...
  • 5 February 2021

    Spreco alimentare in Italia

    Spreco alimentare: una giornata per combatterlo By Sara Salerno – Circular Economy Analyst at Tondo Versione Italiano Oggi, 5 Febbraio, è la Giornata Nazionale per la prevenzione dello spreco alimentare ormai arrivata alla sua ottava edizione. È stata istituita nel 2014 quando su iniziativa dell’agroeconomista Andrea Segrè, coordinatore del Piano Nazionale di Prevenzione dello Spreco Alimentare (PINPAS) del Ministero dell’Ambiente, vennero convocati gli Stati generali della filiera agroalimentare italiana. Ed è da allora che questa giornata è stata inserita nella Campagna Spreco Zero. Ogni anno in questa occasione l’Osservatorio Waste Watcher, ideato da Last Minute Market e sviluppato con la partnership di SWG, presenta i risultati annuali dei monitoraggi condotti a livello nazionale sullo spreco alimentare domestico e sulle abitudini che gli Italiani hanno rispetto all’utilizzo del cibo. L’Osservatorio Waste Watcher, che ormai è diventato un punto di riferimento sia a livello nazionale che europeo, fornisce strumenti di comprensione delle dinamiche sociali e comportamentali che sono alla base della generazione dello spreco alimentare all’interno dei nuclei famigliari. Gli studi condotti dall’Osservatorio consentono, difatti, di produrre conoscenza, cultura e supporto per la progettazione di attività pubbliche o private mirate alla riduzione dello spreco che si perpetua all’interno delle mura domestiche. Lo spreco alimentare è infatti un tema fondamentale che risulta avere un impatto trasversale su economia, società e ambiente. Secondo il Food Sustainability Index in Italia buttiamo in media ogni anno circa 65 Kg a testa di alimenti. Tuttavia, secondo i dati pubblicati nel rapporto dell’Osservatorio Waste Watcher del 2020 lo spreco alimentare degli Italiani ha subìto per la prima volta un calo del 25% rispetto all’anno precedente: infatti si è passati da gettare settimanalmente 6,6€ a 4,9 €. Questo calo si é tradotto in un risparmio di circa 1 miliardo e mezzo su tutto il territorio nazionale, a riprova che...
  • 29 January 2021

    Leila

    By Leila Team Versione Italiano CHI SIAMO Leila Bologna nasce nel 2016 come associazione culturale e di promozione sociale con l’idea di essere uno strumento di risparmio economico e di tutela ambientale attraverso la cultura della condivisione. Infatti, è un luogo che ospita oggetti che si possono prendere in prestito senza doverli acquistare. La nostra attività si è ispirata a Leila Berlino, un progetto nato con l’obiettivo di condividere gli oggetti istituendone di fatto la prima biblioteca degli oggetti Leila Bologna ha poi deciso di svilupparsi e declinarsi così come la vediamo oggi. Al momento, purtroppo, non esiste ancora una rete europea ma speriamo di poterla tessere presto. In fondo abbiamo bisogno di utilizzare, non di possedere. Ad oggi, l’associazione conta circa 230 soci e un direttivo composto da quattro giovani che investono il loro tempo, energia e creatività nel progetto. Ciò che manda davvero avanti Leila, però, sono i soci che ogni giorno passano da Via Luigi Serra, dove l’associazione ha allestito una vera e propria biblioteca degli oggetti, e non solo usufruiscono del servizio di prestito, ma creano continui legami e scambi di pratiche e conoscenze. COME FUNZIONA Per poter accedere al servizio di prestito, il socio si impegna a condividere un proprio oggetto per l’intero periodo di validità della tessera personale ottenibile con un contributo annuale. Solo in seguito, questo potrà prendere in prestito qualsiasi oggetto facente parte della biblioteca, gratuitamente. Il mettere in prestito un oggetto non è un semplice scambio, ma sancisce l’ingresso in una pratica di condivisione e fiducia. OBIETTIVI Leila si pone tre obiettivi fondamentali che ne caratterizzano il funzionamento e la filosofia. Questi tre costituiscono i pilastri sui quali fondiamo la nostra attività e che promuoviamo ogni giorno. 1. Creazione di cultura e socialità. Uno dei primi obiettivi di Leila è quello...
  • 22 January 2021

    SDGs and CE

    English Version The article is based on Enrico Giovannini’s intervention at the second edition of Re-think-Circular Economy Forum last October 2020. Sustainable Development and Circular Economy: the new paradigm for the European Union – Enrico Giovannini, Founder and Director of the Italian Alliance for Sustainable Development (ASviS) Enrico Giovannini begins his speech recognizing the circular economy as the key point of rethinking the economic and social model. He believes that, currently, the concept of circularity is mainly used in reference to material stuff and there is a limited thinking about the need to “recycle” also people. Consequently, without reinvesting continuously in people, they are most likely to be treated as “social waste” (Pope Francis). Having a large part of the population feeling like waste, will not ensure the social and institutional dimensions of sustainability. The current Covid-19 crisis clarifies that if people feel to be excluded from the social and economic processes,institutions are at risk of instability,as people will be in client of pushing for radical changes in the status quo, i.e.a revolution. The “Arab Springs” are an example of this: started as an environmental problem, then transformed into an economic and social crisis, ended with an institutional instability and a revolution. Also migration is an indicator of how people who are treated as “social waste” try to recycle themselves moving somewhere else. He reminds that the economy, society, environment and institutions need to be fully integrated in a vision of sustainable development according to the 2030 Agenda and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. In 2019, the ILO Global Commission on the Future of Work published a report discussing how, in business accounting, workers and their training are accounted for as a cost, like intermediate materials or raw materials, which reduce the company’s profit. According to him, this perspective does not...
  • 15 January 2021

    Industrial Ecology and CE

    Industrial Ecology: A foundation for envisioning and measuring the Circular Economy transition By Shyaam Ramkumar – Tondo Associate English Version The concept of a circular economy has been quickly gaining momentum in recent years. Many local and national governments, companies from startups to SMEs to multinational corporations, and a growing number of NGOs such as Tondo are driving the push for a transformation of our current economic model towards one that is more circular, regenerative, and resilient. However, the theoretical and conceptual foundations of the circular economy have a much longer history. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation lists seven different schools of thought that make up the basic tenets of the circular economy, one of which is Industrial Ecology. Industrial Ecology became a prominent concept with the publication of an article by Robert Frosch and Nicholas Gallopoulos in Scientific American titled “Strategies for Manufacturing”. In the article, Frosch and Gallopoulos conceptualize how industrial systems could behave more like ecological systems. Similar to the symbiotic relationships found in nature where wastes of one species are resources for another, they pondered how outputs and wastes from one industry could be inputs into another industry. The field has since evolved to encompass a set of tools and methods that can help transform value chains across cities, regions, and countries to become more circular. These tools and methods can provide a foundation for envisioning and measuring the circular economy transition. Life Cycle Analysis One of the main methods within Industrial Ecology is Life Cycle Analysis, or LCA. Using the LCA methodology, enables the assessment of the environmental impacts across the whole lifecycle of a product, process, or service. The methodology creates a detailed inventory of all the resources, energy, and materials required from extraction and processing to the production, distribution, use, and disposal of the...
  • 8 January 2021

    Eco-Design or Circular Design?

    By Simone Bambagioni – Tondo Associate English Version Ecological design – or eco-design – is certainly one of the key enablers for a transition towards a circular economy. Yet, is it the best alternative to make fully circular products? Eco–design is an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole lifecycle. As described in the European Waste Framework Directive, it is based on a hierarchical structure of waste management that goes, in order of priority, from the prevention of waste (best option) to reuse, recycling, other recovery and disposal (worst option). However, this process relies on the assumption that the concept of waste still exists and will inevitably persist. However, in an ideal Circular Economy based future, products and materials are reused and cycled indefinitely, eliminating as a consequence the very concept of waste. Therefore, in order to have a truly Circular Product Design, we need to introduce a further concept – what Walter Stahel calls the Principle of Inertia. According to it, a product must maintain its original state (or a state as close as possible to the original one) for as long as possible, in order to minimize and ideally eliminate the environmental costs when performing interventions to preserve or restore the product’s added economic value overtime. In this context, product lifecycle is no longer linked to functionality, but rather to the obsolescence. Products, indeed, can become obsolete for many reasons (technologically outdated, outmoded, outlawed, lost of economic value, etc.) while maintaining their original functionality. This means that the state of obsolescence does not necessarily have to be permanent. It can often be reversed, giving the product a new lease of life. As long as this process stands, a single product can have several use cycles during its lifetime. And...
  • 1 January 2021

    KAFFEEFORM

    English Version Winter is coming and the cold weather with it as well which encourages all of us to look for something to keep us warm. For instance, a blanket, a jumper, a pair of soft and thick socks or a hot drink. Indeed, one of the most popular beverages in the world is coffee which, actually, has no seasonality anymore. Coffee has been consumed for over 1000 years now and around two billion cups are drunk everyday worldwide. This makes coffee the most consumed beverage and the second largest traded commodity after oil. According to the International Coffee Organization, Europe accounted for 34% of global coffee consumption in 2019, followed by Asia and Oceania, Latin America and North America. Therefore, the European Union has the world’s highest per capita consumption with 5kg of coffee per person per year, which is surprisingly high. The increasing production and consumption of this beverage comes with the consequent huge generation of spent coffee grounds left from coffee brewing. According to Solange et al., 6 million tons of spent coffee grounds are generated every year worldwide thus resulting in a great amount of unused organic waste. Spent coffee grounds are usually known and used for their natural and strong properties as fertilizer for gardens, plants and compost. However, over the last years numerous researchers and companies have been focusing on other possible ways to benefit from such waste. For instance, coffee residues can be exploited in pharmaceutical industry, in the food sector or in bio-refineries and for a variety of different products such as the coffee cups created by KAFFEEFORM. THE KAFFEEFORM STORY KAFFEEFORM was born in Berlin from the initial vision of creating something new and lasting out of supposed waste. It all started with Julian Lechner, product designer, who after years of...
  • 25 December 2020

    Two concepts for the same goal?

    By Alessandro Arlati – Research Assistant at HCU, Department of Urban Planning and Regional Development English Version During the last decade, Circular Economy (CE) has more and more affirmed its relevance as a conceptual framework for supporting future sustainable development in our cities. The Ellen McArthur Foundation, as a way to eschew the take-make-waste mentality that has largely characterized our economic systems, defined CE paradigm in 2013. The CE paradigm claims for a change (often referred to as “transition”) from a linear economy, not only by mitigating and adjusting its negative impacts. It implies a more profound systemic shift, aiming at building “long-term resilience, generate business and economic opportunities, and provide environmental and societal benefits”. Yet, CE is not alone in this objective. Many other concepts are paving their way in the attempt of countering the negative impacts of the society we are living in. Among others, Nature-based Solutions (NBS) are becoming a fancy answer to address various societal challenges by imitating nature. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defined the main objective of NBS implementation in its ability to support the achievement of society’s development goals and safeguard human well-being providing simultaneously economic, social and environmental benefits. Now it is worth asking ourselves whether there is a synergy between these two concepts. Looking at the definitions and the objectives that both CE and NBS are aiming at, it does not sound absurd. Furthermore, it is important to mention at this point, that both CE and NBS were included in the EU research and innovation programmes (e.g. Horizon 2020) in 2015. Yet, the series of projects started within these programmes have taken two definite and distinct directions: in other words, the two concepts do not figure out as connected in some way. However, it is possible to identify...
  • 18 December 2020

    Circular Materials

    By Marco Capellini – CEO at MATREC English Version The article is based on Marco Capellini’s intervention at the second edition of Re-think-Circular Economy Forum last October 2020. Marco split his speech in 3 chapters. The first one, called “We can’t change what we can’t measure” is an extremely important topic that allows us to understand how the design of a product can measure the efficient use of resources. Why it is important to apply circularity measurement models? First of all, because circular economy must offer us tangible results in order to quantify the resources used; secondly, because it enables companies to define improvement strategies. Thirdly, to communicate clearly the results obtained, fourthly, to quantify the economic cycle of resources used in the input and output process. As Matrec, they are developing different projects to measure the circularity of the product: furniture, fashion services, food and others with particular attention to the type of material used. Generally they face 2 problems: many companies don’t know about circular economy business models and they think circular economy is just recycling waste; many companies don’t know how to apply the circular economy to product or services. For this reasons, Marco has designed a roadmap that let companies get a first view of circular economy and understand which KPI should be used for a metric definition. This roadmap could be an opportunity to understand the approaches to follow in a product circularity measurement project and choose the most coherent route to apply to products. The best solution would be consider all these aspects but this requires a lot of time and expenses. It is important to contextualize the product step by step, trying to improve the scope of measurement. For example it is possible to start with a qualitative approach and then move on...
  • 26 February 2021

    CE in rural areas

    By Jim MacNeil, Tondo Associate English Version Exploring circular economy in rural areas The use of real-world laboratories to experiment with alternative design, business models and economies While cities present unique challenges in transitioning to the circular economy, rural regions also face their own set of challenges in doing so. Mountains have always provided vital natural resources, social and economic services to communities. Mountain regions are primarily known for their tourism and concentrations of tertiary sector economies, which represent the main sources of income for many rural communities and has become the quick solution to increase the GDP of depopulating communities, a common trend of many mountain regions over the last half-century. In order to have resilient economies able to withstand unexpected and devastating events, firstly, there should be a certain degree of diversity where a system is not so reliant on one industry, and secondly, the system should be flexible in order to adapt to new modes of operating and respond adequately to these events. Circular systems, like natural systems, are intended to be collaborative. Therefore, as a society we also need a change in mindset away from the competitive nature of capitalist economies. In order to do this, businesses and communities should demonstrate the benefits of adapting a new collaborative approach. MonViso Institute (MVI) is an example of how rural actors are taking advantage of their geographical location not only as a centre of experimentation – providing students and visitors inspiration and tools for change, but also in their ability to be self-sufficient, which rural areas have as an advantage over their urban counterparts. MonViso Institute – Demonstrating Circular Solutions Nestled in the Po Valley at 1500 metres a.s.l. in the municipality of Ostana (Piedmont), Tobias Luthe and his group of researchers, designers and entrepreneurs are experimenting with...
  • 16 February 2021

    Tondo Lab

    Versione Italiano Il clima sta cambiando e tali cambiamenti stanno avendo forti impatti su biodiversità, ecosistemi, nonché sulla salute e sul benessere umano. Limitare l’aumento della temperatura globale ad 1.5°C è un obiettivo che deve essere raggiunto per contenere i possibili disastri ambientali, quali forti precipitazioni, prolungati periodi di siccità o i rischi associati allo stress idrico. Il report del 2018 del Panel Intergovernativo sul Cambiamento Climatico (IPCC) dimostra che l’aumento della temperatura globale di 2°C al di sopra dei livelli preindustriali porterebbe a conseguenze devastanti. Per contenere i rischi legati all’aumento delle temperature è richiesto uno sforzo collettivo che acceleri le azioni di contrasto del cambiamento climatico. E’ infatti necessario integrare in maniera consistente il percorso verso un’economia circolare, passo fondamentale verso il raggiungimento degli obiettivi climatici. L’economia circolare offre una risposta sistemica alla crisi climatica riducendo le emissioni e aumentando la resilienza. I vantaggi derivanti da questo cambio di paradigma, inoltre, comprendono il raggiungimento di altri obiettivi come la creazione di città più vivibili, la re-distribuzione della ricchezza e lo stimolo all’innovazione.  All’interno del Green Deal europeo è stato infatti realizzato anche un piano d’azione per l’Economia Circolare. Il piano presenta nuove iniziative lungo tutto il ciclo di vita dei prodotti al fine di modernizzare e trasformare la nostra economia nel rispetto dell’ambiente. Affrontare quindi la sfida del passaggio verso una società ad impatto ambientale zero sarà cruciale nei prossimi anni di ricostruzione dell’economia post-Covid: ci sarà una crescente attenzione alla valutazione della circolarità delle aziende e alle aziende sarà chiesto di trovare modi innovativi per contribuire attivamente all’implementazione dell’economia circolare. Partendo da queste constatazioni, il team di Tondo ha deciso di creare Tondo lab, con l’obiettivo di accelerare la trasformazione delle aziende in un’ottica circolare. Tondo lab semplifica i percorsi di queste verso l’economia circolare affinando la...
  • 12 February 2021

    CE and Lithium-ion Batteries

    English Version By Alessandro Innocenti, Tondo Associate and PhD student at Helmholtz Institute Ulm A Circular Future for Energy Storage The lithium-ion battery is the key technology that is allowing the widespread adoption of electric vehicles,portable electronic devices, and renewable energy storage.Every year, an increasing number of batteries are put into the market: we passed from an installed capacity of 200 GWh of 2014 to more than 700 GWh in 2019, with a forecast of about 8000 GWh by 2030. This also means that more and more batteries will have to be retired every year after their use in one of the mentioned applications. In fact, lithium-ion batteries must be replaced after a certain time, since they show a decrease of the performances caused by inevitable chemical degradation reactions. Spent batteries can be directly sent to recycling for the material recovery, but the economic sustainability of lithium-ion battery recycling strongly depends on the presence of precious metals as cobalt (which is getting phased out for its toxicity) and nickel inside. This is the preferred route for the batteries used in consumer electronics and personal mobility systems, which are usually quite small and with a lower quality if compared to other possible applications. In fact, stricter requirements for batteries are present in the electric vehicle industry, because of the high standards in terms of autonomy and of power set by the manufacturers to be competitive with classic vehicles. Moreover, these standards must be assured for a long time, since no one wants that after one year or two from the purchase, the electric car makes 10-20% less kilometres with each “refill”. In the industry, the common threshold for the end of life of a lithium-ion battery is when it retains 80% of the initial capacity or power. The actual time needed...
  • 5 February 2021

    Spreco alimentare in Italia

    Spreco alimentare: una giornata per combatterlo By Sara Salerno – Circular Economy Analyst at Tondo Versione Italiano Oggi, 5 Febbraio, è la Giornata Nazionale per la prevenzione dello spreco alimentare ormai arrivata alla sua ottava edizione. È stata istituita nel 2014 quando su iniziativa dell’agroeconomista Andrea Segrè, coordinatore del Piano Nazionale di Prevenzione dello Spreco Alimentare (PINPAS) del Ministero dell’Ambiente, vennero convocati gli Stati generali della filiera agroalimentare italiana. Ed è da allora che questa giornata è stata inserita nella Campagna Spreco Zero. Ogni anno in questa occasione l’Osservatorio Waste Watcher, ideato da Last Minute Market e sviluppato con la partnership di SWG, presenta i risultati annuali dei monitoraggi condotti a livello nazionale sullo spreco alimentare domestico e sulle abitudini che gli Italiani hanno rispetto all’utilizzo del cibo. L’Osservatorio Waste Watcher, che ormai è diventato un punto di riferimento sia a livello nazionale che europeo, fornisce strumenti di comprensione delle dinamiche sociali e comportamentali che sono alla base della generazione dello spreco alimentare all’interno dei nuclei famigliari. Gli studi condotti dall’Osservatorio consentono, difatti, di produrre conoscenza, cultura e supporto per la progettazione di attività pubbliche o private mirate alla riduzione dello spreco che si perpetua all’interno delle mura domestiche. Lo spreco alimentare è infatti un tema fondamentale che risulta avere un impatto trasversale su economia, società e ambiente. Secondo il Food Sustainability Index in Italia buttiamo in media ogni anno circa 65 Kg a testa di alimenti. Tuttavia, secondo i dati pubblicati nel rapporto dell’Osservatorio Waste Watcher del 2020 lo spreco alimentare degli Italiani ha subìto per la prima volta un calo del 25% rispetto all’anno precedente: infatti si è passati da gettare settimanalmente 6,6€ a 4,9 €. Questo calo si é tradotto in un risparmio di circa 1 miliardo e mezzo su tutto il territorio nazionale, a riprova che...
  • 29 January 2021

    Leila

    By Leila Team Versione Italiano CHI SIAMO Leila Bologna nasce nel 2016 come associazione culturale e di promozione sociale con l’idea di essere uno strumento di risparmio economico e di tutela ambientale attraverso la cultura della condivisione. Infatti, è un luogo che ospita oggetti che si possono prendere in prestito senza doverli acquistare. La nostra attività si è ispirata a Leila Berlino, un progetto nato con l’obiettivo di condividere gli oggetti istituendone di fatto la prima biblioteca degli oggetti Leila Bologna ha poi deciso di svilupparsi e declinarsi così come la vediamo oggi. Al momento, purtroppo, non esiste ancora una rete europea ma speriamo di poterla tessere presto. In fondo abbiamo bisogno di utilizzare, non di possedere. Ad oggi, l’associazione conta circa 230 soci e un direttivo composto da quattro giovani che investono il loro tempo, energia e creatività nel progetto. Ciò che manda davvero avanti Leila, però, sono i soci che ogni giorno passano da Via Luigi Serra, dove l’associazione ha allestito una vera e propria biblioteca degli oggetti, e non solo usufruiscono del servizio di prestito, ma creano continui legami e scambi di pratiche e conoscenze. COME FUNZIONA Per poter accedere al servizio di prestito, il socio si impegna a condividere un proprio oggetto per l’intero periodo di validità della tessera personale ottenibile con un contributo annuale. Solo in seguito, questo potrà prendere in prestito qualsiasi oggetto facente parte della biblioteca, gratuitamente. Il mettere in prestito un oggetto non è un semplice scambio, ma sancisce l’ingresso in una pratica di condivisione e fiducia. OBIETTIVI Leila si pone tre obiettivi fondamentali che ne caratterizzano il funzionamento e la filosofia. Questi tre costituiscono i pilastri sui quali fondiamo la nostra attività e che promuoviamo ogni giorno. 1. Creazione di cultura e socialità. Uno dei primi obiettivi di Leila è quello...
  • 22 January 2021

    SDGs and CE

    English Version The article is based on Enrico Giovannini’s intervention at the second edition of Re-think-Circular Economy Forum last October 2020. Sustainable Development and Circular Economy: the new paradigm for the European Union – Enrico Giovannini, Founder and Director of the Italian Alliance for Sustainable Development (ASviS) Enrico Giovannini begins his speech recognizing the circular economy as the key point of rethinking the economic and social model. He believes that, currently, the concept of circularity is mainly used in reference to material stuff and there is a limited thinking about the need to “recycle” also people. Consequently, without reinvesting continuously in people, they are most likely to be treated as “social waste” (Pope Francis). Having a large part of the population feeling like waste, will not ensure the social and institutional dimensions of sustainability. The current Covid-19 crisis clarifies that if people feel to be excluded from the social and economic processes,institutions are at risk of instability,as people will be in client of pushing for radical changes in the status quo, i.e.a revolution. The “Arab Springs” are an example of this: started as an environmental problem, then transformed into an economic and social crisis, ended with an institutional instability and a revolution. Also migration is an indicator of how people who are treated as “social waste” try to recycle themselves moving somewhere else. He reminds that the economy, society, environment and institutions need to be fully integrated in a vision of sustainable development according to the 2030 Agenda and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. In 2019, the ILO Global Commission on the Future of Work published a report discussing how, in business accounting, workers and their training are accounted for as a cost, like intermediate materials or raw materials, which reduce the company’s profit. According to him, this perspective does not...
  • 15 January 2021

    Industrial Ecology and CE

    Industrial Ecology: A foundation for envisioning and measuring the Circular Economy transition By Shyaam Ramkumar – Tondo Associate English Version The concept of a circular economy has been quickly gaining momentum in recent years. Many local and national governments, companies from startups to SMEs to multinational corporations, and a growing number of NGOs such as Tondo are driving the push for a transformation of our current economic model towards one that is more circular, regenerative, and resilient. However, the theoretical and conceptual foundations of the circular economy have a much longer history. The Ellen MacArthur Foundation lists seven different schools of thought that make up the basic tenets of the circular economy, one of which is Industrial Ecology. Industrial Ecology became a prominent concept with the publication of an article by Robert Frosch and Nicholas Gallopoulos in Scientific American titled “Strategies for Manufacturing”. In the article, Frosch and Gallopoulos conceptualize how industrial systems could behave more like ecological systems. Similar to the symbiotic relationships found in nature where wastes of one species are resources for another, they pondered how outputs and wastes from one industry could be inputs into another industry. The field has since evolved to encompass a set of tools and methods that can help transform value chains across cities, regions, and countries to become more circular. These tools and methods can provide a foundation for envisioning and measuring the circular economy transition. Life Cycle Analysis One of the main methods within Industrial Ecology is Life Cycle Analysis, or LCA. Using the LCA methodology, enables the assessment of the environmental impacts across the whole lifecycle of a product, process, or service. The methodology creates a detailed inventory of all the resources, energy, and materials required from extraction and processing to the production, distribution, use, and disposal of the...
  • 8 January 2021

    Eco-Design or Circular Design?

    By Simone Bambagioni – Tondo Associate English Version Ecological design – or eco-design – is certainly one of the key enablers for a transition towards a circular economy. Yet, is it the best alternative to make fully circular products? Eco–design is an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole lifecycle. As described in the European Waste Framework Directive, it is based on a hierarchical structure of waste management that goes, in order of priority, from the prevention of waste (best option) to reuse, recycling, other recovery and disposal (worst option). However, this process relies on the assumption that the concept of waste still exists and will inevitably persist. However, in an ideal Circular Economy based future, products and materials are reused and cycled indefinitely, eliminating as a consequence the very concept of waste. Therefore, in order to have a truly Circular Product Design, we need to introduce a further concept – what Walter Stahel calls the Principle of Inertia. According to it, a product must maintain its original state (or a state as close as possible to the original one) for as long as possible, in order to minimize and ideally eliminate the environmental costs when performing interventions to preserve or restore the product’s added economic value overtime. In this context, product lifecycle is no longer linked to functionality, but rather to the obsolescence. Products, indeed, can become obsolete for many reasons (technologically outdated, outmoded, outlawed, lost of economic value, etc.) while maintaining their original functionality. This means that the state of obsolescence does not necessarily have to be permanent. It can often be reversed, giving the product a new lease of life. As long as this process stands, a single product can have several use cycles during its lifetime. And...
  • 1 January 2021

    KAFFEEFORM

    English Version Winter is coming and the cold weather with it as well which encourages all of us to look for something to keep us warm. For instance, a blanket, a jumper, a pair of soft and thick socks or a hot drink. Indeed, one of the most popular beverages in the world is coffee which, actually, has no seasonality anymore. Coffee has been consumed for over 1000 years now and around two billion cups are drunk everyday worldwide. This makes coffee the most consumed beverage and the second largest traded commodity after oil. According to the International Coffee Organization, Europe accounted for 34% of global coffee consumption in 2019, followed by Asia and Oceania, Latin America and North America. Therefore, the European Union has the world’s highest per capita consumption with 5kg of coffee per person per year, which is surprisingly high. The increasing production and consumption of this beverage comes with the consequent huge generation of spent coffee grounds left from coffee brewing. According to Solange et al., 6 million tons of spent coffee grounds are generated every year worldwide thus resulting in a great amount of unused organic waste. Spent coffee grounds are usually known and used for their natural and strong properties as fertilizer for gardens, plants and compost. However, over the last years numerous researchers and companies have been focusing on other possible ways to benefit from such waste. For instance, coffee residues can be exploited in pharmaceutical industry, in the food sector or in bio-refineries and for a variety of different products such as the coffee cups created by KAFFEEFORM. THE KAFFEEFORM STORY KAFFEEFORM was born in Berlin from the initial vision of creating something new and lasting out of supposed waste. It all started with Julian Lechner, product designer, who after years of...
  • 25 December 2020

    Two concepts for the same goal?

    By Alessandro Arlati – Research Assistant at HCU, Department of Urban Planning and Regional Development English Version During the last decade, Circular Economy (CE) has more and more affirmed its relevance as a conceptual framework for supporting future sustainable development in our cities. The Ellen McArthur Foundation, as a way to eschew the take-make-waste mentality that has largely characterized our economic systems, defined CE paradigm in 2013. The CE paradigm claims for a change (often referred to as “transition”) from a linear economy, not only by mitigating and adjusting its negative impacts. It implies a more profound systemic shift, aiming at building “long-term resilience, generate business and economic opportunities, and provide environmental and societal benefits”. Yet, CE is not alone in this objective. Many other concepts are paving their way in the attempt of countering the negative impacts of the society we are living in. Among others, Nature-based Solutions (NBS) are becoming a fancy answer to address various societal challenges by imitating nature. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defined the main objective of NBS implementation in its ability to support the achievement of society’s development goals and safeguard human well-being providing simultaneously economic, social and environmental benefits. Now it is worth asking ourselves whether there is a synergy between these two concepts. Looking at the definitions and the objectives that both CE and NBS are aiming at, it does not sound absurd. Furthermore, it is important to mention at this point, that both CE and NBS were included in the EU research and innovation programmes (e.g. Horizon 2020) in 2015. Yet, the series of projects started within these programmes have taken two definite and distinct directions: in other words, the two concepts do not figure out as connected in some way. However, it is possible to identify...
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